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OpenID Connect (OIDC) Bearer token authentication

Secure HTTP access to Jakarta REST (formerly known as JAX-RS) endpoints in your application with Bearer token authentication by using the Quarkus OpenID Connect (OIDC) extension.

Overview of the Bearer token authentication mechanism in Quarkus

Quarkus supports the Bearer token authentication mechanism through the Quarkus OpenID Connect (OIDC) extension.

The bearer tokens are issued by OIDC and OAuth 2.0 compliant authorization servers, such as Keycloak.

Bearer token authentication is the process of authorizing HTTP requests based on the existence and validity of a bearer token. The bearer token provides information about the subject of the call, which is used to determine whether or not an HTTP resource can be accessed.

The following diagrams outline the Bearer token authentication mechanism in Quarkus:

Bearer token authentication
Figure 1. Bearer token authentication mechanism in Quarkus with single-page application
  1. The Quarkus service retrieves verification keys from the OIDC provider. The verification keys are used to verify the bearer access token signatures.

  2. The Quarkus user accesses the single-page application (SPA).

  3. The single-page application uses Authorization Code Flow to authenticate the user and retrieve tokens from the OIDC provider.

  4. The single-page application uses the access token to retrieve the service data from the Quarkus service.

  5. The Quarkus service verifies the bearer access token signature by using the verification keys, checks the token expiry date and other claims, allows the request to proceed if the token is valid, and returns the service response to the single-page application.

  6. The single-page application returns the same data to the Quarkus user.

Bearer token authentication
Figure 2. Bearer token authentication mechanism in Quarkus with Java or command line client
  1. The Quarkus service retrieves verification keys from the OIDC provider. The verification keys are used to verify the bearer access token signatures.

  2. The client uses client_credentials that requires client id and secret or password grant, which requires client id, secret, username, and password to retrieve the access token from the OIDC provider.

  3. The client uses the access token to retrieve the service data from the Quarkus service.

  4. The Quarkus service verifies the bearer access token signature by using the verification keys, checks the token expiry date and other claims, allows the request to proceed if the token is valid, and returns the service response to the client.

If you need to authenticate and authorize users by using OIDC authorization code flow, see the Quarkus OpenID Connect authorization code flow mechanism for protecting web applications guide. Also, if you use Keycloak and bearer tokens, see the Quarkus Using Keycloak to centralize authorization guide.

To learn about how you can protect service applications by using OIDC Bearer token authentication, see the following tutorial: * Protect a web application by using OpenID Connect (OIDC) authorization code flow.

For information about how to support multiple tenants, see the Quarkus Using OpenID Connect Multi-Tenancy guide.

Accessing JWT claims

If you need to access JWT token claims, you can inject JsonWebToken:

package org.acme.security.openid.connect;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.jwt.JsonWebToken;
import jakarta.inject.Inject;
import jakarta.annotation.security.RolesAllowed;
import jakarta.ws.rs.GET;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Path;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Produces;
import jakarta.ws.rs.core.MediaType;

@Path("/api/admin")
public class AdminResource {

    @Inject
    JsonWebToken jwt;

    @GET
    @RolesAllowed("admin")
    @Produces(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN)
    public String admin() {
        return "Access for subject " + jwt.getSubject() + " is granted";
    }
}

Injection of JsonWebToken is supported in @ApplicationScoped, @Singleton, and @RequestScoped scopes. However, the use of @RequestScoped is required if the individual claims are injected as simple types. For more information, see the Supported injection scopes section of the Quarkus "Using JWT RBAC" guide.

UserInfo

If you must request a UserInfo JSON object from the OIDC UserInfo endpoint, set quarkus.oidc.authentication.user-info-required=true. A request is sent to the OIDC provider UserInfo endpoint, and an io.quarkus.oidc.UserInfo (a simple javax.json.JsonObject wrapper) object is created. io.quarkus.oidc.UserInfo can be injected or accessed as a SecurityIdentity userinfo attribute.

Configuration metadata

The current tenant’s discovered OpenID Connect Configuration Metadata is represented by io.quarkus.oidc.OidcConfigurationMetadata and can be injected or accessed as a SecurityIdentity configuration-metadata attribute.

The default tenant’s OidcConfigurationMetadata is injected if the endpoint is public.

Token claims and SecurityIdentity roles

You can map SecurityIdentity roles from the verified JWT access tokens as follows:

  • If the quarkus.oidc.roles.role-claim-path property is set, and matching array or string claims are found, then the roles are extracted from these claims. For example, customroles, customroles/array, scope, "http://namespace-qualified-custom-claim"/roles, "http://namespace-qualified-roles".

  • If a groups claim is available, then its value is used.

  • If a realm_access/roles or resource_access/client_id/roles (where client_id is the value of the quarkus.oidc.client-id property) claim is available, then its value is used. This check supports the tokens issued by Keycloak.

For example, the following JWT token has a complex groups claim that contains a roles array that includes roles:

{
    "iss": "https://server.example.com",
    "sub": "24400320",
    "upn": "jdoe@example.com",
    "preferred_username": "jdoe",
    "exp": 1311281970,
    "iat": 1311280970,
    "groups": {
        "roles": [
          "microprofile_jwt_user"
        ],
    }
}

You must map the microprofile_jwt_user role to SecurityIdentity roles, and you can do so with this configuration: quarkus.oidc.roles.role-claim-path=groups/roles.

If the token is opaque (binary), then a scope property from the remote token introspection response is used.

If UserInfo is the source of the roles, then set quarkus.oidc.authentication.user-info-required=true and quarkus.oidc.roles.source=userinfo, and if needed, set quarkus.oidc.roles.role-claim-path.

Additionally, a custom SecurityIdentityAugmentor can also be used to add the roles. For more information, see the Security identity customization section of the Quarkus "Security tips and tricks" guide.

You can also map SecurityIdentity roles created from token claims to deployment-specific roles by using the HTTP Security policy.

Token scopes and SecurityIdentity permissions

SecurityIdentity permissions are mapped in the form of io.quarkus.security.StringPermission from the scope parameter of the source of the roles and using the same claim separator.

import java.util.List;
import jakarta.inject.Inject;
import jakarta.ws.rs.GET;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Path;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.jwt.Claims;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.jwt.JsonWebToken;

import io.quarkus.security.PermissionsAllowed;

@Path("/service")
public class ProtectedResource {

    @Inject
    JsonWebToken accessToken;

    @PermissionsAllowed("email") (1)
    @GET
    @Path("/email")
    public Boolean isUserEmailAddressVerifiedByUser() {
        return accessToken.getClaim(Claims.email_verified.name());
    }

    @PermissionsAllowed("orders_read") (2)
    @GET
    @Path("/order")
    public List<Order> listOrders() {
        return List.of(new Order(1));
    }

    public static class Order {
        String id;
        public Order() {
        }
        public Order(String id) {
            this.id = id;
        }
        public String getId() {
            return id;
        }
        public void setId() {
            this.id = id;
        }
    }
}
1 Only requests with OpenID Connect scope email will be granted access.
2 The read access is limited to the client requests with the orders_read scope.

For more information about the io.quarkus.security.PermissionsAllowed annotation, see the Permission annotation section of the "Authorization of web endpoints" guide.

Token verification and introspection

If the token is a JWT token, then, by default, it is verified with a JsonWebKey (JWK) key from a local JsonWebKeySet, retrieved from the OIDC provider’s JWK endpoint. The token’s key identifier (kid) header value is used to find the matching JWK key. If no matching JWK is available locally, then JsonWebKeySet is refreshed by fetching the current key set from the JWK endpoint. The JsonWebKeySet refresh can be repeated only after the quarkus.oidc.token.forced-jwk-refresh-interval expires. The default expiry time is 10 minutes. If no matching JWK is available after the refresh, the JWT token is sent to the OIDC provider’s token introspection endpoint.

If the token is opaque, which means it can be a binary token or an encrypted JWT token, then it is always sent to the OIDC provider’s token introspection endpoint.

If you work only with JWT tokens and expect a matching JsonWebKey to always be available, for example, after refreshing a key set, you must disable token introspection, as shown in the following example:

quarkus.oidc.token.allow-jwt-introspection=false
quarkus.oidc.token.allow-opaque-token-introspection=false

There might be cases where JWT tokens must be verified through introspection only, which can be forced by configuring an introspection endpoint address only. The following properties configuration shows you an example of how you can achieve this with Keycloak:

quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus
quarkus.oidc.discovery-enabled=false
# Token Introspection endpoint: http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/tokens/introspect
quarkus.oidc.introspection-path=/protocol/openid-connect/tokens/introspect

There are advantages and disadvantages to indirectly enforcing the introspection of JWT tokens remotely. An advantage is that you eliminate the need for two remote calls: a remote OIDC metadata discovery call followed by another remote call to fetch the verification keys that will not be used. A disadvantage is that you need to know the introspection endpoint address and configure it manually.

The alternative approach is to allow the default option of OIDC metadata discovery but also require that only the remote JWT introspection is performed, as shown in the following example:

quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus
quarkus.oidc.token.require-jwt-introspection-only=true

An advantage of this approach is that the configuration is simpler and easier to understand. A disadvantage is that a remote OIDC metadata discovery call is required to discover an introspection endpoint address, even though the verification keys will not be fetched.

The io.quarkus.oidc.TokenIntrospection, a simple jakarta.json.JsonObject wrapper object, will be created. It can be injected or accessed as a SecurityIdentity introspection attribute, providing either the JWT or opaque token has been successfully introspected.

Token introspection and UserInfo cache

All opaque access tokens must be remotely introspected. Sometimes, JWT access tokens might also have to be introspected. If UserInfo is also required, the same access token is used in a subsequent remote call to the OIDC provider. So, if UserInfo is required, and the current access token is opaque, two remote calls are made for every such token; one remote call to introspect the token and another to get UserInfo. If the token is JWT, only a single remote call to get UserInfo is needed, unless it also has to be introspected.

The cost of making up to two remote calls for every incoming bearer or code flow access token can sometimes be problematic.

If this is the case in production, consider caching the token introspection and UserInfo data for a short period, for example, 3 or 5 minutes.

quarkus-oidc provides quarkus.oidc.TokenIntrospectionCache and quarkus.oidc.UserInfoCache interfaces, usable for @ApplicationScoped cache implementation. Use @ApplicationScoped cache implementation to store and retrieve quarkus.oidc.TokenIntrospection and/or quarkus.oidc.UserInfo objects, as outlined in the following example:

@ApplicationScoped
@Alternative
@Priority(1)
public class CustomIntrospectionUserInfoCache implements TokenIntrospectionCache, UserInfoCache {
...
}

Each OIDC tenant can either permit or deny the storing of its quarkus.oidc.TokenIntrospection data, quarkus.oidc.UserInfo data, or both with boolean quarkus.oidc."tenant".allow-token-introspection-cache and quarkus.oidc."tenant".allow-user-info-cache properties.

Additionally, quarkus-oidc provides a simple default memory-based token cache, which implements both quarkus.oidc.TokenIntrospectionCache and quarkus.oidc.UserInfoCache interfaces.

You can configure and activate the default OIDC token cache as follows:

# 'max-size' is 0 by default, so the cache can be activated by setting 'max-size' to a positive value:
quarkus.oidc.token-cache.max-size=1000
# 'time-to-live' specifies how long a cache entry can be valid for and will be used by a cleanup timer:
quarkus.oidc.token-cache.time-to-live=3M
# 'clean-up-timer-interval' is not set by default, so the cleanup timer can be activated by setting 'clean-up-timer-interval':
quarkus.oidc.token-cache.clean-up-timer-interval=1M

The default cache uses a token as a key, and each entry can have TokenIntrospection, UserInfo, or both. It will only keep up to a max-size number of entries. If the cache is already full when a new entry is to be added, an attempt is made to find a space by removing a single expired entry. Additionally, the cleanup timer, if activated, periodically checks for expired entries and removes them.

You can experiment with the default cache implementation or register a custom one.

JSON Web Token claim verification

After the bearer JWT token’s signature has been verified and its expires at (exp) claim has been checked, the iss (issuer) claim value is verified next.

By default, the iss claim value is compared to the issuer property, which might have been discovered in the well-known provider configuration. However, if the quarkus.oidc.token.issuer property is set, then the iss claim value is compared to it instead.

In some cases, this iss claim verification might not work. For example, if the discovered issuer property contains an internal HTTP/IP address while the token iss claim value contains an external HTTP/IP address. Or when a discovered issuer property contains the template tenant variable, but the token iss claim value has the complete tenant-specific issuer value.

In such cases, consider skipping the issuer verification by setting quarkus.oidc.token.issuer=any. Only skip the issuer verification if no other options are available:

  • If you are using Keycloak and observe the issuer verification errors caused by the different host addresses, configure Keycloak with a KEYCLOAK_FRONTEND_URL property to ensure the same host address is used.

  • If the iss property is tenant-specific in a multitenant deployment, use the SecurityIdentity tenant-id attribute to check that the issuer is correct in the endpoint or the custom Jakarta filter. For example:

import jakarta.inject.Inject;
import jakarta.ws.rs.container.ContainerRequestContext;
import jakarta.ws.rs.container.ContainerRequestFilter;
import jakarta.ws.rs.core.Response;
import jakarta.ws.rs.ext.Provider;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.jwt.JsonWebToken;
import io.quarkus.oidc.OidcConfigurationMetadata;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.SecurityIdentity;

@Provider
public class IssuerValidator implements ContainerRequestFilter {
    @Inject
    OidcConfigurationMetadata configMetadata;

    @Inject JsonWebToken jwt;
    @Inject SecurityIdentity identity;

    public void filter(ContainerRequestContext requestContext) {
        String issuer = configMetadata.getIssuer().replace("{tenant-id}", identity.getAttribute("tenant-id"));
        if (!issuer.equals(jwt.getIssuer())) {
            requestContext.abortWith(Response.status(401).build());
        }
    }
}

Consider using the quarkus.oidc.token.audience property to verify the token aud (audience) claim value.

Single-page applications

A single-page application (SPA) typically uses XMLHttpRequest(XHR) and the JavaScript utility code provided by the OIDC provider to acquire a bearer token to access Quarkus service applications.

For example, if you work with Keycloak, you can use keycloak.js to authenticate users and refresh the expired tokens from the SPA:

<html>
<head>
    <title>keycloak-spa</title>
    <script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/axios/dist/axios.min.js"></script>
    <script src="http://localhost:8180/js/keycloak.js"></script>
    <script>
        var keycloak = new Keycloak();
        keycloak.init({onLoad: 'login-required'}).success(function () {
            console.log('User is now authenticated.');
        }).error(function () {
            window.location.reload();
        });
        function makeAjaxRequest() {
            axios.get("/api/hello", {
                headers: {
                    'Authorization': 'Bearer ' + keycloak.token
                }
            })
            .then( function (response) {
                console.log("Response: ", response.status);
            }).catch(function (error) {
                console.log('refreshing');
                keycloak.updateToken(5).then(function () {
                    console.log('Token refreshed');
                }).catch(function () {
                    console.log('Failed to refresh token');
                    window.location.reload();
                });
            });
    }
    </script>
</head>
<body>
    <button onclick="makeAjaxRequest()">Request</button>
</body>
</html>

Compartilhamento de recursos entre origens

If you plan to use your OIDC service application from a single-page application running on a different domain, you must configure cross-origin resource sharing (CORS). For more information, see the CORS filter section of the "Cross-origin resource sharing" guide.

Provider endpoint configuration

An OIDC service application needs to know the OIDC provider’s token, JsonWebKey (JWK) set, and possibly UserInfo and introspection endpoint addresses.

By default, they are discovered by adding a /.well-known/openid-configuration path to the configured quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url.

Alternatively, if the discovery endpoint is not available, or if you want to save on the discovery endpoint round-trip, you can disable the discovery and configure them with relative path values. For example:

quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus
quarkus.oidc.discovery-enabled=false
# Token endpoint: http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/token
quarkus.oidc.token-path=/protocol/openid-connect/token
# JWK set endpoint: http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/certs
quarkus.oidc.jwks-path=/protocol/openid-connect/certs
# UserInfo endpoint: http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/userinfo
quarkus.oidc.user-info-path=/protocol/openid-connect/userinfo
# Token Introspection endpoint: http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/tokens/introspect
quarkus.oidc.introspection-path=/protocol/openid-connect/tokens/introspect

Token propagation

For information about bearer access token propagation to the downstream services, see the Token propagation section of the Quarkus "OpenID Connect (OIDC) and OAuth2 client and filters reference" guide.

OIDC provider client authentication

quarkus.oidc.runtime.OidcProviderClient is used when a remote request to an OIDC provider is required. If introspection of the Bearer token is necessary, then OidcProviderClient must authenticate to the OIDC provider. For more information about supported authentication options, see the OIDC provider client authentication section in the Quarkus "OpenID Connect authorization code flow mechanism for protecting web applications" guide.

Testando

If you have to test Quarkus OIDC service endpoints that require Keycloak authorization, follow the Test Keycloak authorization section.

You can begin testing by adding the following dependencies to your test project:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.rest-assured</groupId>
    <artifactId>rest-assured</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-junit5</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
build.gradle
testImplementation("io.rest-assured:rest-assured")
testImplementation("io.quarkus:quarkus-junit5")

WireMock

Add the following dependencies to your test project:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-test-oidc-server</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
build.gradle
testImplementation("io.quarkus:quarkus-test-oidc-server")

Prepare the REST test endpoint and set application.properties. For example:

# keycloak.url is set by OidcWiremockTestResource
quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=${keycloak.url}/realms/quarkus/
quarkus.oidc.client-id=quarkus-service-app
quarkus.oidc.application-type=service

Finally, write the test code. For example:

import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.equalTo;

import java.util.Set;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import io.quarkus.test.common.QuarkusTestResource;
import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusTest;
import io.quarkus.test.oidc.server.OidcWiremockTestResource;
import io.restassured.RestAssured;
import io.smallrye.jwt.build.Jwt;

@QuarkusTest
@QuarkusTestResource(OidcWiremockTestResource.class)
public class BearerTokenAuthorizationTest {

    @Test
    public void testBearerToken() {
        RestAssured.given().auth().oauth2(getAccessToken("alice", Set.of("user")))
            .when().get("/api/users/me")
            .then()
            .statusCode(200)
            // The test endpoint returns the name extracted from the injected `SecurityIdentity` principal.
            .body("userName", equalTo("alice"));
    }

    private String getAccessToken(String userName, Set<String> groups) {
        return Jwt.preferredUserName(userName)
                .groups(groups)
                .issuer("https://server.example.com")
                .audience("https://service.example.com")
                .sign();
    }
}

The quarkus-test-oidc-server extension includes a signing RSA private key file in a JSON Web Key (JWK) format and points to it with a smallrye.jwt.sign.key.location configuration property. It allows you to sign the token by using a no-argument sign() operation.

Testing your quarkus-oidc service application with OidcWiremockTestResource provides the best coverage because even the communication channel is tested against the WireMock HTTP stubs. If you need to run a test with WireMock stubs that are not yet supported by OidcWiremockTestResource, you can inject a WireMockServer instance into the test class, as shown in the following example:

OidcWiremockTestResource does not work with @QuarkusIntegrationTest against Docker containers because the WireMock server runs in the JVM that runs the test, which is inaccessible from the Docker container that runs the Quarkus application.

package io.quarkus.it.keycloak;

import static com.github.tomakehurst.wiremock.client.WireMock.matching;
import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.equalTo;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import com.github.tomakehurst.wiremock.WireMockServer;
import com.github.tomakehurst.wiremock.client.WireMock;

import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusTest;
import io.quarkus.test.oidc.server.OidcWireMock;
import io.restassured.RestAssured;

@QuarkusTest
public class CustomOidcWireMockStubTest {

    @OidcWireMock
    WireMockServer wireMockServer;

    @Test
    public void testInvalidBearerToken() {
        wireMockServer.stubFor(WireMock.post("/auth/realms/quarkus/protocol/openid-connect/token/introspect")
                .withRequestBody(matching(".*token=invalid_token.*"))
                .willReturn(WireMock.aResponse().withStatus(400)));

        RestAssured.given().auth().oauth2("invalid_token").when()
                .get("/api/users/me/bearer")
                .then()
                .statusCode(401)
                .header("WWW-Authenticate", equalTo("Bearer"));
    }
}

OidcTestClient

If you use SaaS OIDC providers, such as Auth0, and want to run tests against the test (development) domain or to run tests against a remote Keycloak test realm, if you already have quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url configured, you can use OidcTestClient.

For example, you have the following configuration:

%test.quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=https://dev-123456.eu.auth0.com/
%test.quarkus.oidc.client-id=test-auth0-client
%test.quarkus.oidc.credentials.secret=secret

To start, add the same dependency, quarkus-test-oidc-server, as described in the WireMock section.

Next, write the test code as follows:

package org.acme;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.AfterAll;
import static io.restassured.RestAssured.given;
import static org.hamcrest.CoreMatchers.is;

import java.util.Map;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusTest;
import io.quarkus.test.oidc.client.OidcTestClient;

@QuarkusTest
public class GreetingResourceTest {

    static OidcTestClient oidcTestClient = new OidcTestClient();

    @AfterAll
    public static void close() {
        oidcTestClient.close();
    }

    @Test
    public void testHelloEndpoint() {
        given()
          .auth().oauth2(getAccessToken("alice", "alice"))
          .when().get("/hello")
          .then()
             .statusCode(200)
             .body(is("Hello, Alice"));
    }

    private String getAccessToken(String name, String secret) {
        return oidcTestClient.getAccessToken(name, secret,
            Map.of("audience", "https://dev-123456.eu.auth0.com/api/v2/",
	           "scope", "profile"));
    }
}

This test code acquires a token by using a password grant from the test Auth0 domain, which has registered an application with the client id test-auth0-client, and created the user alice with password alice. For a test like this to work, the test Auth0 application must have the password grant enabled. This example code also shows how to pass additional parameters. For Auth0, these are the audience and scope parameters.

Dev Services for Keycloak

The preferred approach for integration testing against Keycloak is Dev Services for Keycloak. Dev Services for Keycloak will start and initialize a test container. Then, it will create a quarkus realm and a quarkus-app client (secret secret) and add alice (admin and user roles) and bob (user role) users, where all of these properties can be customized.

First, add the following dependency, which provides a utility class io.quarkus.test.keycloak.client.KeycloakTestClient that you can use in tests for acquiring the access tokens:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-test-keycloak-server</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
build.gradle
testImplementation("io.quarkus:quarkus-test-keycloak-server")

Next, prepare your application.properties configuration file. You can start with an empty application.properties file because Dev Services for Keycloak registers quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url and points it to the running test container, quarkus.oidc.client-id=quarkus-app, and quarkus.oidc.credentials.secret=secret.

However, if you have already configured the required quarkus-oidc properties, then you only need to associate quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url with the prod profile for `Dev Services for Keycloak`to start a container, as shown in the following example:

%prod.quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus

If a custom realm file has to be imported into Keycloak before running the tests, configure Dev Services for Keycloak as follows:

%prod.quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=http://localhost:8180/realms/quarkus
quarkus.keycloak.devservices.realm-path=quarkus-realm.json

Finally, write your test, which will be executed in JVM mode, as shown in the following examples:

Example of a test executed in JVM mode:
package org.acme.security.openid.connect;

import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusTest;
import io.quarkus.test.keycloak.client.KeycloakTestClient;
import io.restassured.RestAssured;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

@QuarkusTest
public class BearerTokenAuthenticationTest {

    KeycloakTestClient keycloakClient = new KeycloakTestClient();

    @Test
    public void testAdminAccess() {
        RestAssured.given().auth().oauth2(getAccessToken("alice"))
                .when().get("/api/admin")
                .then()
                .statusCode(200);
        RestAssured.given().auth().oauth2(getAccessToken("bob"))
                .when().get("/api/admin")
                .then()
                .statusCode(403);
    }

    protected String getAccessToken(String userName) {
        return keycloakClient.getAccessToken(userName);
    }
}
Example of a test executed in native mode:
package org.acme.security.openid.connect;

import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusIntegrationTest;

@QuarkusIntegrationTest
public class NativeBearerTokenAuthenticationIT extends BearerTokenAuthenticationTest {
}

For more information about initializing and configuring Dev Services for Keycloak, see the Dev Services for Keycloak guide.

KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager

You can also use KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager for integration testing with Keycloak.

Use Dev Services for Keycloak instead of KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager for integration testing with Keycloak, unless you have specific requirements for using KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager.

First, add the following dependency:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-test-keycloak-server</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
build.gradle
testImplementation("io.quarkus:quarkus-test-keycloak-server")

It provides io.quarkus.test.keycloak.server.KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager, which is an implementation of io.quarkus.test.common.QuarkusTestResourceLifecycleManager that starts a Keycloak container.

Configure the Maven Surefire plugin as follows, or similarly with maven.failsafe.plugin for native image testing:

<plugin>
    <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
    <configuration>
        <systemPropertyVariables>
            <!-- Or, alternatively, configure 'keycloak.version' -->
            <keycloak.docker.image>${keycloak.docker.image}</keycloak.docker.image>
            <!--
              Disable HTTPS if required:
              <keycloak.use.https>false</keycloak.use.https>
            -->
        </systemPropertyVariables>
    </configuration>
</plugin>

Prepare the REST test endpoint and set application.properties as outlined in the following example:

# keycloak.url is set by KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager
quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url=${keycloak.url}/realms/quarkus/
quarkus.oidc.client-id=quarkus-service-app
quarkus.oidc.credentials=secret
quarkus.oidc.application-type=service

Finally, write the test code. For example:

import static io.quarkus.test.keycloak.server.KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager.getAccessToken;
import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.equalTo;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import io.quarkus.test.common.QuarkusTestResource;
import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusTest;
import io.quarkus.test.keycloak.server.KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager;
import io.restassured.RestAssured;

@QuarkusTest
@QuarkusTestResource(KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager.class)
public class BearerTokenAuthorizationTest {

    @Test
    public void testBearerToken() {
        RestAssured.given().auth().oauth2(getAccessToken("alice"))
            .when().get("/api/users/preferredUserName")
            .then()
            .statusCode(200)
            // The test endpoint returns the name extracted from the injected SecurityIdentity Principal
            .body("userName", equalTo("alice"));
    }

}
Summary

In the provided example, KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager registers two users: alice and admin. By default: * The user alice has the user role, which you can customize by using a keycloak.token.user-roles system property. * The user admin has both the user and admin roles, which you can customize by using the keycloak.token.admin-roles system property.

By default, KeycloakTestResourceLifecycleManager uses HTTPS to initialize a Keycloak instance, and this can be disabled by using keycloak.use.https=false. The default realm name is quarkus, and the client id is quarkus-service-app. If you want to customize these values, set the keycloak.realm and keycloak.service.client system properties.

Local public key

You can use a local inlined public key for testing your quarkus-oidc service applications, as shown in the following example:

quarkus.oidc.client-id=test
quarkus.oidc.public-key=MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAlivFI8qB4D0y2jy0CfEqFyy46R0o7S8TKpsx5xbHKoU1VWg6QkQm+ntyIv1p4kE1sPEQO73+HY8+Bzs75XwRTYL1BmR1w8J5hmjVWjc6R2BTBGAYRPFRhor3kpM6ni2SPmNNhurEAHw7TaqszP5eUF/F9+KEBWkwVta+PZ37bwqSE4sCb1soZFrVz/UT/LF4tYpuVYt3YbqToZ3pZOZ9AX2o1GCG3xwOjkc4x0W7ezbQZdC9iftPxVHR8irOijJRRjcPDtA6vPKpzLl6CyYnsIYPd99ltwxTHjr3npfv/3Lw50bAkbT4HeLFxTx4flEoZLKO/g0bAoV2uqBhkA9xnQIDAQAB

smallrye.jwt.sign.key.location=/privateKey.pem

To generate JWT tokens, copy privateKey.pem from the integration-tests/oidc-tenancy in the main Quarkus repository and use a test code similar to the one in the preceding WireMock section. You can use your own test keys, if preferred.

This approach provides limited coverage compared to the WireMock approach. For example, the remote communication code is not covered.

TestSecurity annotation

You can use @TestSecurity and @OidcSecurity annotations to test the service application endpoint code, which depends on either one, or all three, of the following injections:

  • JsonWebToken

  • UserInfo

  • OidcConfigurationMetadata

First, add the following dependency:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-test-security-oidc</artifactId>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
build.gradle
testImplementation("io.quarkus:quarkus-test-security-oidc")

Write a test code as outlined in the following example:

import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.is;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import io.quarkus.test.common.http.TestHTTPEndpoint;
import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusTest;
import io.quarkus.test.security.TestSecurity;
import io.quarkus.test.security.oidc.Claim;
import io.quarkus.test.security.oidc.ConfigMetadata;
import io.quarkus.test.security.oidc.OidcSecurity;
import io.quarkus.test.security.oidc.OidcConfigurationMetadata;
import io.quarkus.test.security.oidc.UserInfo;
import io.restassured.RestAssured;

@QuarkusTest
@TestHTTPEndpoint(ProtectedResource.class)
public class TestSecurityAuthTest {

    @Test
    @TestSecurity(user = "userOidc", roles = "viewer")
    public void testOidc() {
        RestAssured.when().get("test-security-oidc").then()
                .body(is("userOidc:viewer"));
    }

    @Test
    @TestSecurity(user = "userOidc", roles = "viewer")
    @OidcSecurity(claims = {
            @Claim(key = "email", value = "user@gmail.com")
    }, userinfo = {
            @UserInfo(key = "sub", value = "subject")
    }, config = {
            @ConfigMetadata(key = "issuer", value = "issuer")
    })
    public void testOidcWithClaimsUserInfoAndMetadata() {
        RestAssured.when().get("test-security-oidc-claims-userinfo-metadata").then()
                .body(is("userOidc:viewer:user@gmail.com:subject:issuer"));
    }

}

The ProtectedResource class, which is used in this code example, might look like this:

import jakarta.inject.Inject;
import jakarta.ws.rs.GET;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Path;

import io.quarkus.oidc.OidcConfigurationMetadata;
import io.quarkus.oidc.UserInfo;
import io.quarkus.security.Authenticated;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.jwt.JsonWebToken;

@Path("/service")
@Authenticated
public class ProtectedResource {

    @Inject
    JsonWebToken accessToken;
    @Inject
    UserInfo userInfo;
    @Inject
    OidcConfigurationMetadata configMetadata;

    @GET
    @Path("test-security-oidc")
    public String testSecurityOidc() {
        return accessToken.getName() + ":" + accessToken.getGroups().iterator().next();
    }

    @GET
    @Path("test-security-oidc-claims-userinfo-metadata")
    public String testSecurityOidcWithClaimsUserInfoMetadata() {
        return accessToken.getName() + ":" + accessToken.getGroups().iterator().next()
                + ":" + accessToken.getClaim("email")
                + ":" + userInfo.getString("sub")
                + ":" + configMetadata.get("issuer");
    }
}

You must always use the @TestSecurity annotation. Its user property is returned as JsonWebToken.getName() and its roles property is returned as JsonWebToken.getGroups(). The @OidcSecurity annotation is optional and you can use it to set the additional token claims and the UserInfo and OidcConfigurationMetadata properties. Additionally, if the quarkus.oidc.token.issuer property is configured, it is used as an OidcConfigurationMetadata issuer property value.

If you work with opaque tokens, you can test them as shown in the following code example:

import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.is;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import io.quarkus.test.common.http.TestHTTPEndpoint;
import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusTest;
import io.quarkus.test.security.TestSecurity;
import io.quarkus.test.security.oidc.OidcSecurity;
import io.quarkus.test.security.oidc.TokenIntrospection;
import io.restassured.RestAssured;

@QuarkusTest
@TestHTTPEndpoint(ProtectedResource.class)
public class TestSecurityAuthTest {

    @Test
    @TestSecurity(user = "userOidc", roles = "viewer")
    @OidcSecurity(introspectionRequired = true,
        introspection = {
            @TokenIntrospection(key = "email", value = "user@gmail.com")
        }
    )
    public void testOidcWithClaimsUserInfoAndMetadata() {
        RestAssured.when().get("test-security-oidc-claims-userinfo-metadata").then()
                .body(is("userOidc:viewer:userOidc:viewer"));
    }

}

The ProtectedResource class, which is used in this code example, might look like this:

import jakarta.inject.Inject;
import jakarta.ws.rs.GET;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Path;

import io.quarkus.oidc.TokenIntrospection;
import io.quarkus.security.Authenticated;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.SecurityIdentity;

@Path("/service")
@Authenticated
public class ProtectedResource {

    @Inject
    SecurityIdentity securityIdentity;
    @Inject
    TokenIntrospection introspection;

    @GET
    @Path("test-security-oidc-opaque-token")
    public String testSecurityOidcOpaqueToken() {
        return securityIdentity.getPrincipal().getName() + ":" + securityIdentity.getRoles().iterator().next()
            + ":" + introspection.getString("username")
            + ":" + introspection.getString("scope")
            + ":" + introspection.getString("email");
    }
}

The @TestSecurity, user, and roles attributes are available as TokenIntrospection, username, and scope properties. Use io.quarkus.test.security.oidc.TokenIntrospection to add the additional introspection response properties, such as an email, and so on.

@TestSecurity and @OidcSecurity can be combined in a meta-annotation, as outlined in the following example:

    @Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
    @Target({ ElementType.METHOD })
    @TestSecurity(user = "userOidc", roles = "viewer")
    @OidcSecurity(introspectionRequired = true,
        introspection = {
            @TokenIntrospection(key = "email", value = "user@gmail.com")
        }
    )
    public @interface TestSecurityMetaAnnotation {

    }

This is particularly useful if multiple test methods must use the same set of security settings.

Check errors in the logs

To see more details about token verification errors, enable io.quarkus.oidc.runtime.OidcProvider and TRACE level logging:

quarkus.log.category."io.quarkus.oidc.runtime.OidcProvider".level=TRACE
quarkus.log.category."io.quarkus.oidc.runtime.OidcProvider".min-level=TRACE

To see more details about OidcProvider client initialization errors, enable io.quarkus.oidc.runtime.OidcRecorder and TRACE level logging as follows:

quarkus.log.category."io.quarkus.oidc.runtime.OidcRecorder".level=TRACE
quarkus.log.category."io.quarkus.oidc.runtime.OidcRecorder".min-level=TRACE

External and internal access to OIDC providers

The externally-accessible token of the OIDC provider and other endpoints might have different HTTP(S) URLs compared to the URLs that are auto-discovered or configured relative to the quarkus.oidc.auth-server-url internal URL. For example, suppose your SPA acquires a token from an external token endpoint address and sends it to Quarkus as a bearer token. In that case, the endpoint might report an issuer verification failure.

In such cases, if you work with Keycloak, start it with the KEYCLOAK_FRONTEND_URL system property set to the externally accessible base URL. If you work with other OIDC providers, refer to your provider’s documentation.

Using the client-id property

The quarkus.oidc.client-id property identifies the OIDC client that requested the current bearer token. The OIDC client can be an SPA application running in a browser or a Quarkus web-app confidential client application propagating the access token to the Quarkus service application.

This property is required if the service application is expected to introspect the tokens remotely, which is always the case for the opaque tokens. This property is optional for local JSON Web Token (JWT) verification only.

Setting the quarkus.oidc.client-id property is encouraged even if the endpoint does not require access to the remote introspection endpoint. This is because when client-id is set, it can be used to verify the token audience. It will also be included in logs when the token verification fails, enabling better traceability of tokens issued to specific clients and analysis over a longer period.

For example, if your OIDC provider sets a token audience, consider the following configuration pattern:

# Set client-id
quarkus.oidc.client-id=quarkus-app
# Token audience claim must contain 'quarkus-app'
quarkus.oidc.token.audience=${quarkus.oidc.client-id}

If you set quarkus.oidc.client-id, but your endpoint does not require remote access to one of the OIDC provider endpoints (introspection, token acquisition, and so on), do not set a client secret with quarkus.oidc.credentials or similar properties because it will not be used.

Quarkus web-app applications always require the quarkus.oidc.client-id property.

Authentication after an HTTP request has completed

Sometimes, SecurityIdentity for a given token must be created when there is no active HTTP request context. The quarkus-oidc extension provides io.quarkus.oidc.TenantIdentityProvider to convert a token to a SecurityIdentity instance. For example, one situation when you must verify the token after the HTTP request has completed is when you are processing messages with Vert.x event bus. The example below uses the 'product-order' message within different CDI request contexts. Therefore, an injected SecurityIdentity would not correctly represent the verified identity and be anonymous.

package org.acme.quickstart.oidc;

import static jakarta.ws.rs.core.HttpHeaders.AUTHORIZATION;

import jakarta.inject.Inject;
import jakarta.ws.rs.HeaderParam;
import jakarta.ws.rs.POST;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Path;
import io.vertx.core.eventbus.EventBus;

@Path("order")
public class OrderResource {

    @Inject
    EventBus eventBus;

    @POST
    public void order(String product, @HeaderParam(AUTHORIZATION) String bearer) {
        String rawToken = bearer.substring("Bearer ".length()); (1)
        eventBus.publish("product-order", new Product(product, rawToken));
    }

    public static class Product {
         public String product;
         public String customerAccessToken;
         public Product() {
         }
         public Product(String product, String customerAccessToken) {
             this.product = product;
             this.customerAccessToken = customerAccessToken;
         }
    }
}
1 At this point, the token is not verified when proactive authentication is disabled.
package org.acme.quickstart.oidc;

import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import jakarta.inject.Inject;

import io.quarkus.oidc.AccessTokenCredential;
import io.quarkus.oidc.TenantFeature;
import io.quarkus.oidc.TenantIdentityProvider;
import io.quarkus.security.identity.SecurityIdentity;
import io.quarkus.vertx.ConsumeEvent;
import io.smallrye.common.annotation.Blocking;

@ApplicationScoped
public class OrderService {

    @TenantFeature("tenantId")
    @Inject
    TenantIdentityProvider identityProvider;

    @Inject
    TenantIdentityProvider defaultIdentityProvider; (1)

    @Blocking
    @ConsumeEvent("product-order")
    void processOrder(Product product) {
        AccessTokenCredential tokenCredential = new AccessTokenCredential(product.customerAccessToken);
        SecurityIdentity securityIdentity = identityProvider.authenticate(tokenCredential).await().indefinitely(); (2)
        ...
    }

}
1 For the default tenant, the TenantFeature qualifier is optional.
2 Executes token verification and converts the token to a SecurityIdentity.

When the provider is used during an HTTP request, the tenant configuration can be resolved as described in the Using OpenID Connect Multi-Tenancy guide. However, when there is no active HTTP request, you must select the tenant explicitly with the io.quarkus.oidc.TenantFeature qualifier.

Dynamic tenant configuration resolution is currently not supported. Authentication that requires a dynamic tenant will fail.

OIDC request filters

You can filter OIDC requests made by Quarkus to the OIDC provider by registering one or more OidcRequestFilter implementations, which can update or add new request headers, and log requests. For more information, see OIDC request filters.

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